Saturday, July 11, 2020
Global Warming Argumentative Essay Topics - Easy Tips For Saving Time and MoneyThere are many global warming argumentative essay topics that can be used by students and teachers in the classroom. You can use it as a way to prompt debate among the students.Writing for an essay is not something that should be taken lightly. If your essay does not hold the interest of the reader, you will not achieve the end goal that you want for it. To ensure that your essay has this same interest, you must choose global warming argumentative essay topics that have the power to get your point across effectively.The first thing that you should do is make sure that you understand the basic ideas that you are going to include in your article content. An understanding of the subject will help you think more clearly about the idea that you want to express. You can do this by making use of resources on the Internet that can help you better understand the topic. There are numerous websites that can offer you the information that you need on the subject matter that you are writing about.There are many global warming argumentative essay topics that can be used to make use of this basic knowledge. You can either use them on your own or with the assistance of others. Once you have an understanding of the topic, you can then start to write about it.This also means that you should spend some time thinking about the topic that you are writing about. Before you begin writing, make sure that you have decided on a general idea about the topic and what the key issues are. There are so many different topics that you can tackle when you begin your essay. It is up to you to choose one of them.The next important part of any essay is the writing itself. You will be able to accomplish thisby using global warming argumentative essay topics that have been carefully selected. The idea is to use topics that are interesting, yet those that can get your point across to the readers. These can be articles that focus on various issues such as sea level rise, global pollution, or nuclear power.Before you write the essay, it is important that you read the essay topic thoroughly and familiarize yourself with the basic idea behind it. After you have done this, you should have a good idea of how the essay is going to look like. This is very important as you will need to know how it is supposed to flow. You also want to ensure that you write in a manner that will inspire others to read the essay and have an interest in it.The best way to learn how to use global warming argumentative essay topics is to actually read them and study them. This will help you to understand the underlying logic behind the topic. By doing this, you will be able to choose the best essay topic and make use of the available resources that are readily available on the Internet.
Wednesday, June 24, 2020
The Wage gap took many years to eradicate, through the efforts of brave men and women who had a sense of justice and wanted it to be seen in their society, no matter the backlash that they were faced with. The wage gap seemed to go on forever until the President John F. Kennedy made the decision to sign the Equal Pay Act of 1963, which sent ripples through society, and paved the path of equality in the work industry forever. The Gender Pay Act changed the treatment of women in any work industry and called for them to be viewed as equals as a female human being, and not a different species all together. The Gender Pay Act was backed up by many movies, shows, and political cartoons which tried their hardest to support the passing of the act, voicing their concerns through satire and sarcastic captions and eventually persuaded people of that time to join their cause and effort of justice. There were several hurdles that had to be overcome, and several back tracks that had been taken, to pass the Equal Pay Act. First it was given to Congress to look over and debate over it with their members. Instead, Congress stashed the bill with the other uninterested bills they had and never batted an eye to it again. Angered and annoyed, the Women Rights and the Labor Organization began to help and support the Equal Pay Act movement, but they did not bring a major change in the society. These efforts were all in vain until World War II began in 1942. It had taken a war in which millions of men had died, and the roads of countries were flooded with blood, to make the work place industry realize the need of women in factories and office jobs. The men were enlisted in the war, and the women became the bread providers of their households. Someone had to provide now that the men were serving for their country. Women had taken the work place head on proving they were just as capable as men were in the work industry, as it shows in the video Women went from 24% of the US workforce to 37% (Historychannel). Womens Right activist such as Eleanor Roosevelt and Winfred C. Stanley helped to get the Equal Pay Act drafted. Admiring the efforts of the women during the war, the Equal Pay Act was signed on the 10th of June in 1963 by the President John F. Kennedy as a token of gratitude and a step toward equality. There were many forms of media used to get the political message of the Equal Pay Act across. An example was the famous cartoon of 1942 titled The Buck Stops Here (Huck, 2). This cartoon shows a man and a woman both standing on identical lemonade stands, with signs for each stand. The man has a sign which says, The Buck Stops Here while the woman has a sign which reads 59c stops here. The attitude of the man and women are clearly visible as different ends of the spectrum. The man is very much pleased in his stand, as he poses with a big smile and his chest out. The woman however is standing there with her face in her hands and leaning on her elbows, with a gloomy look on her face. This was an influential cartoon because discusses the pay disparity between different genders shown by the signs and how it affects them, hence the two different attitudes portrayed by each gender. Another way Wage Gap was disapproved through media was in a show called Mary Tyler Moore. Mary Tyler Moore is still one of the classic sitcoms that is watched by the average Americans. In season 3 episode 1 Mary talks briefly about the wage gap when she confronts it with her boss Lou Grant. There is a specific scene in the show when she receives her check, but she realizes that the check was $50 less than the what the male worker who had the same job with the same set of skill earned(Moore Show). Annoyed and confused, she asked her coworker Would you say that Im doing, you know, as good a job, as the guy who was the associate producer before me? and they respond to her by saying Better, much better, He was terrible. This shows that in the eyes of arrogant men, no matter how skilled worker you are, if youre a woman then you are not equal to a man. However, this is also a very powerful scene because it shows that no matter if youre a male or female, the job can only be performed by those who are skilled and take the initiative to be the best at what they do. This was one of the many reasons t hat people believed why there should not be any wage gap based on gender. Gender is something that you cannot control, but your work ethic is, and you should be rewarded based on that and only that. Furthermore, the Mary Tyler show contains another scene that portrays the backwards thinking of ignorant people, whether it be in those days or today, about the wage gap. The scene begins with Mary coming in her boss office and questions him about why she is getting paid less for the same job she has performed better than the previous worker (Moore show). Mr. Grant answers her by saying that guys have a family to support. You would have to pay the man with three Ã ¦children more than the man with two children. And the married man more than the bachelor (). Mr. Grant must have forgotten that without women to give birth to these families, the men would have nothing to support. Therefore, presenting an argument which is biased against women with families and only supports men with families is not only unjust but also tyrannical, because that would be turning a blind eye against those who need help, whether it be male or female. Some might argue that the sitcom is fictional and therefore must not be taken seriously, but everyone knows that every fictional work has a very real inspiration. That sitcom segment was inspired from true events that happen to not only one, but all women in the work industry who strive hard to help their family. The message of equality was not only portrayed through cartoons and movies but through unorthodox means such as bumper stickers. One that became famous in 1988 was Women need raises not roses (Wagner, 5). This shows that women were tired of the stereotypical treatment of the female gender at a time of necessity and modernization. Women want to be treated equally just like men, whether it came to pay, vote or treatment itself. The time of roses and chocolates were over, and the time of women paying for their own drinks and movie tickets had begun. President John F. Kennedys speech supports the claim made by the bumper sticker when he speaks about the wage gap and says, the av erage woman worker earns only 60 percent of the average wage for men (Kennedy, 1). This shows that the 40% gap should not be seen as its only 40% but rather its 40%!. therefore, instead of trying to make women feel better by giving them roses, give them raises and watch a smile automatically form on their face. A sarcastic use of comics to portray the message of inequality in the workplace effectively, is shown in the comedic and satirical cartoon Oh! That explains the difference in our salaries (Dame, 1). This cartoon shows a young boy and girl looking at their private parts and then saying the very caption. This therefore addresses many issues in the work force. The first of the points is that no one can choose their gender at birth, therefore treating one gender less than the other is unfair and a crime against humanity, no matter how dramatic that sounds. Another point it addresses is that pay is based on what genital part you are born with and not based off how effective, consi stent, and efficient the work is done, no matter which gender it is done by. Even though Kennedy passed the act we still experience problems until today. Equal work should have equal pay and thats what Kennedy had in mind. Women still suffer by being provided less money for their work which equal to man of same position. Even though society tried reinforce public opinion of Kennedys actions by using movies, shows, satire and political cartoons there is still more that needs to be work to fix the wage gap.
Wednesday, May 20, 2020
Sample details Pages: 3 Words: 995 Downloads: 4 Date added: 2017/09/25 Category Geography Essay Type Narrative essay Tags: Australia Essay Identity Essay Tolerance Essay Did you like this example? Australian National Identity: This essay will argue that tolerance has had major influence on our Australian National Identity through aspects such as, multiculturalism, our wide variety of Religious beliefs and practices, the acceptance of sexual identities and a vast range of Political issues. Australia is a country known to have traits such as, fair go, stoicism, larrikinism and most importantly mateship, which reflects our high tolerance on many issues. Tolerance is defined as Ã¢â¬Ëthe capacity for or the practice of recognizing and respecting the beliefs or practices of othersÃ¢â¬â¢. Sexual identity and our acceptance in society of same sex partnerships is evidence of the tolerance of Australian Society. Each year in Sydney, a Parade is held for those who wish to celebrate their sexual freedom or sexual equality, this being the Mardi Gras. The parade was first established in June 1978 when a human rights protest arose arguing that all members of society are to be treated as equals, no matter what sexual orientation/identity you are. The nationwide event attracts all different groups of people from around the world, all acknowledging our acceptance of same sex partnerships. This point is clarified by the Same-Sex Relationships Act which was passed in November 2008 and has travelled a long way to ensuring same-sex de facto couples and their families have equality under Australian law. AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s acceptance of religious freedom is also an important element of our Australian identity. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society we have a number of different religious beliefs and rituals which are recognized and celebrated by many people. These people have a number of different religious backgrounds and for Australia to prove our ethnic diversity, it is our responsibility to supply their needs, this is why we have Mosques and Temples developed throughout Australia for our blended society to feel equal. Our current schooling system also tolerates diff erent Religious views in a major way by incorporating these values in our teachings, field trips (excursions) are held to widen our younger generations view on their fellow Australians religious beliefs, not only in Public Schools, but in Catholic Schools and Universities. Our Government realized we had to adapt to serve each and everyone in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society which brought on the Racial and Religious Tolerance Act which was established in 2001 and amended in May 2006 to suit the needs of our national identity. The Act supports the right of all people to be treated with dignity and respect, a community standard about how we behave towards each other. As part of AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s National Identity, we are known for our democratic voting rights and the freedom of speech, this is conducted through private voting booths, where we are able to choose who we think is right for the leadership of our Nation. For all Citizens over the age of 18 it is compulsory to vote in the elect ion of both federal and state governments, in many countries this will never be heard of. Australia has many different political views on all matters, and as a society we have the right to vote and voice our own opinions without feeling threatened or judged. On another Political point regarding our tolerance on issues, is Ã¢â¬ËThe ApologyÃ¢â¬â¢ which was delivered on 13 February 2008 by our newly elected Prime Minister Kevin Rudd to members of the Stolen Generation on behalf of the Australian Government. A future where we harness the determination of all Australians, Indigenous and non Indigenous, to close the gap that lies between us in life expectancy, educational achievement and economic opportunity. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"A future where all Australians, whatever their origins, are truly equal partners, with equal opportunities and with an equal stake in shaping the next chapter in the history of this great country, Australia. Ã¢â¬ With such high tolerance as AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s, w e were able to admit our wrongs and formally apologize to the Nation. The speech was a huge milestone for our Country by acknowledging our wrong laws and policies in the past and try for a better future with all Indigenous and non-Indigenous people. The concept of Australia as a multicultural society was first produced in a Government document in 1972, though it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t till the late 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s that the federal government undertook the task of developing a multicultural Australia. Further down the track we now pride ourselves on being a multicultural society, one of the few nations on earth with ethnic diversity but without major tension or violence. With reference to an article in the Ã¢â¬ËDaily Telegraph dated 13 March 2010Ã¢â¬â¢ were Rosemarie Lentini states Ã¢â¬Å"Australia opened its doors for the first time after World War II to European immigrants like Italians, Greeks and PolesÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Post War immigration challenged previous ideas of what the Austra lian Identity isÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬Å"We had new Europeans who had assimilated but still changed our food, our interactions and how we understand the worldÃ¢â¬ . This shows AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s tolerance of change within our society. Multiculturalism is by far the leading topic of discussion in Political views today, each month we hear of, the nicknamed, Ã¢â¬ËBoat PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢, also known as Vietnamese, Laotians and Cambodians, who flee their Country to search of a better lifestyle, whether it is for jobs or simply to get away from war and poverty. Australia is the main target for such an influx of refugees and asylum seekers as we are known as the Ã¢â¬ËLaid BackÃ¢â¬â¢ society and being so tolerant of such matters, therefore shaping a heavily multicultural society. This society creates new connections between people of all backgrounds in our Schools, our streets, our news and entertainment. Ultimately, it is apparent that AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s tolerance has had a major influenc e on our National identity. With our Government tolerating a number issues, it provides better foundations by which people of different sexual orientation, Religious Political view and most importantly people of different cultural backgrounds can interact and learn from each other, this is the key to progress, our capacity to absorb the rest of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s cultures and create a stronger Australia. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Australian National Identity" essay for you Create order
Monday, May 18, 2020
Career Goal: My career goal is to become part of a major computer engineering corporation. Objective 1: Obviously my first objective would be to obtain experience in my computer field. One reason to do this first is to make sure I have the education I need and, in addition, the background experience. The reason I want background experience is because, most computer companies require two years of experience in the field before they will hire you. This is the case in most cases, whether you have a degree or not. This will also help me better understand the computer classes I will be taking. Barrier: It is entirely possible that, without a degree or previous work experience in the computer field, no one will want to hire me. Solution 1: There is a simple way to get around this issue; stop looking for a paying job in the field, and look for an internship availability. I wonÃ¢â¬â¢t get paid, but IÃ¢â¬â¢ll accomplish the objective, which is to gain experience in the field. Solution 2: Obviously, not all of us can afford to not work, so consider another option that I will hav e. Hopefully, I will have developed a close knit relationship with my computer professor by this point in time. If I ask nicely, I am sure my professor would write me a great recommendation letter to a company I wanted to work for, and with his background in IT, it would greatly increase my chances of getting hired. Objective 2: My second objective would be to obtain my bachelor degree in computer IT. Once IShow MoreRelatedMy Career Goal : Career Goals1203 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMy career goal is to receive my doctorate degree in Occupational Therapy. I would like to work with geriatric population because they are more vulnerable to disabilities from chronic illness that results in them being put into nursing facilities. I want to specialize my education on physical disabilities. I have experience working with the geriatric patients who are physically disabled and I hope to help them keep their independence. My goal is to help geriatric patients gain valuable skills in orderRead MoreCareer Goals : My Career Essay1393 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagespsychology, my career assessments test showed me many options for my career goal path. For starters, my career interest profile results are broken into six main categories which are: social, artistic, investigative, enterprising, realistic, and conventional. Acc ording to my results, my career matches are as followed: preschool, primary, secondary, and special education teacher. I am 28% social, 22% artistic, 17% investigative, 11% enterprising, 10% realistic, and 9% realistic. According to my PhoenixRead MoreMy Goals For My Career Goals1199 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageswonders how his or her life is going to end up; however, I know how my life is going to unfold because I am aware of my goals, challenges, and strengths. I have many goals for my career and life that will help me find new paths and dreams to pursue, and I will be able to find my ideal job and lifestyle. Also, it will allow me to succeed in a topic or subject. Although I do have many personal challenges which could set me back, I am sure my individual strengths will help me overcome the setbacks and willRead MoreMy Goals : My Career Goals1375 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageshim forever. My personal goals are to be married and have a child or children by the age of 30. Secondarily and far less pressing is to drive a full sized truck, and to comfortably afford it. My academic goals are very unclear. They directly correlate with my career goals which have not been set. But for the sake of this paper my academic goal is to first get my AA. And if I still have no set career goal, to move onto UCF to either study physical training or business. My career goals that I have setRead MoreMy Career Goals For A Career1142 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesin your career you need to work within different business-related industries. Consequently, as a business manager working with multi-national companies for gaining more knowledge in the scale of economy with a profit advantage. It is believed that obtaining communication and international trading skills are necessary for self-entrepreneurship by experiencing from a related and specific environment such as working in large companies and learning skills. This report will be describing about my journeyRead MoreCareer Goals : My Career1861 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages Career Paper Phenix Patton In this paper, I will review my career choice, why I chose that career, why I believe I am fit for that career, and what I have to do to have the career I want. I will explore the advantages of my career, the disadvantages of my career, and how difficult leading a life with that career would be. I will also go over the results of several assessments I have taken in order to assess my best career interests, my aptitude for the career I choose, and a personality test. AllRead MoreMy Goals For My Career Goals910 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"A goal defines a plan of action, acts as a continuous progress report on how well you are doing as you move toward chosen goals, it identifies exactly what achievement or success is for each person, and it tells you when its time to reset goalsÃ¢â¬ according to Dennis Congos. Goals play an important role, when youÃ¢â¬â¢re in college. I have many goals but my top three goals for my educational career at Colorado Christian University are, getting an average of a 3.9 GPA in every class, staying in school andRead MoreMy Career Goals : My Goals1184 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesto yourself. No one can ever take your Knowledge away from you. With me earning my degree I am one step closer to my career field, which is the business side of the health field. Also, my family is my motivation, they are the reason IÃ¢â¬â¢m striving to do better in life. And thatÃ¢â¬â¢s why I want to continue my academic success. My educational goal that I wish to achieve is obtaining my 4 year degree. Achieving this goal will make me feel like the best mother ever. I know it will be hard at times becauseRead MoreMy Goals For A Career1626 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesWe all have goals that push us forward in life. My overall goal when it comes to a career is to pursue something where I can be happy and enjoy what I do, while also making enough money to live comfortably. This career for me is either a psychologist or a lawyer. Nonetheless, one may assume they are quite different but in fact, psychology is in every aspect of life, and even if I do not necessarily become a therapist, I know I will still be able to use aspects of it in whichever career I decide toRead MoreMy Career Goals2082 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesI have for my goals into one sentence this would describe it perfectly. Although it took me quite some time to realize what I was passionate about, I am very grateful to have found it when I did. Prior to discovering what gave me such a feeling of fervor, having goals and planning for the future did not mean nearly as much to me as it does now. Now that I have a new sense of purpose, it has led me to me setting goals I never thought could be possible. Achieving the perfect balance in my life, getting
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The War That Transformed the World Before 1914, European conflict had been escalating for some time. Serbian nationalism was a strong force within the Serbians, and they saw the Austro-Hungarian Empire as a threat to their nationalistic desires. On June 28 1914, Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip assassinated the Archduke Franz Ferdinand, who was the heir to the Austro-Hungarian Empire. While the immediate cause of World War I is most commonly attributed to this assassination, the system of alliances that existed before the assassination is responsible for the war being spread to a larger global scale. By the time this assassination occurred, two major alliances had already been formed. The Triple Alliance included the powers of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy, while the Triple Entente consisted of Britain, France, and Russia. Austria-Hungary spent the month following the assassination gaining GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s support against Serbia. Once Germany agreed to support them, Austria- Hungary declared war on Serbia, who had gained RussiaÃ¢â¬â¢s support if a war erupted. With multiple formed alliances and war being declared against one another, it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t long before the war spread overseas involving non-European countries, and became a world war. The war took place from 1914-1918, and over the span of this time, new weapons and technology had surfaced creating a whole new dynamic to war and countries suffered devastation in their societies and economies. World War I was a completelyShow MoreRelatedComparing and Contrast Article About Wwi Wwii841 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe First World War 3. The Second World War 4. Venn Diagram 5. Conclusion 1. Introduction: In this article IÃ¢â¬â¢m going to compare World War One and World War Two with each other. IÃ¢â¬â¢m going to search for similarities and differences. Also IÃ¢â¬â¢m going to explain to you what actually happened in the First World War and the Second World War. This time, my information is not from the internet. I watched little movies about the First World War and the Second World War. In that wayRead More U.S. History 1877-1933 Essay1028 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Ã¢â¬Å"The United States emerged from a virulent, intense, and inhumane civil war and evolved into a new nation during this period. This transition was the culmination of political, economic, social, and cultural movements which transformed the nation. E Pluribus Unum - out of many United States, one nation; the United States was forged in the cauldron of these revolutions.quot;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;-Arnold Toynbee, A Study of History nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The above statement is one thatRead MoreImpact Of The Great Depression On Canada1361 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageslegislature was the Canadian National Railway (CNR). The central government had assumed control more than various ancient and bankrupt railroads amid World War I and the 1920s. The obligation the administration accepted was over $2 billion, a huge aggregate at the time, yet amid the blast years it appeared to be payable. The Depression transformed this obligation into a devastating weight. Because of the decline in exchange, the CNR additionally started to lose generous measures of cash amid theRead MoreTo what extent was Germany to blame for the start of World War 11473 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageswas Germany to blame for the start of World War 1? During the beginning of the 19th Century Europe was crossing a period characterized by great technological advancements and scientific optimism, but it was also subject to hostile relations between many of its main powers. These hostilities transformed into war on the 28th of June 1914,when a 19 year old terrorist, Gavrilo Princip, assassinated the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, creating the cause of war that one month later brought Austria-HungaryRead MoreEssay on US Constitution870 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Transformed beyond recognition from the vision of the Founding FathersÃ¢â¬â¢. Discuss this view of the modern US constitution. On March 4th 1789 the constitution of the United States of America came into effect. Derived from the visions of seven political leaders and statesmen and consisting of only seven articles, the US constitution would become the first of its kind, the bedrock of democracy and lay the foundations for democratic political systems across the world. Since 1789, America has progressedRead MorePre-World War II History1050 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthreat to the world when Hitler brought the country to prominence. Hitler transformed Germany from a depression-wracked country into a major military power. Externally, Hitler went on major conquests in order to bring Germany to power. Within Nazi Germany, he attempted to create a super race of people and wanted to do so by eliminating all inferior races starting with the Jews. In the midst of this action, the United States attempted to prevent any association with the ongoing war. However, as HitlerRead More All Quiet on the Western Front Essay927 Wor ds Ã |Ã 4 Pagesbattlefield will think hard before starting a war.Ã¢â¬ Many of the preceding war novels to All Quiet on the Western Front, misrepresented or overlooked the anguish of war, in favor of more resplendent ideals such as glory, honor, or nationalism. The predominant issue of All Quiet on the Western Front is the terrible atrocities of war. The reality that is portrayed in the novel is that there was no glory or honor in this war, only a fierce barbarity that actually transformed the nature of human existence into irreparableRead MoreUnited States Experience During Wars897 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesUnited States Experience during wars The history of the United States is riddled with military engagements and warfare. To the present day, the world knows the United States as a militaristic power. During the 20th the century the United States participated in many military specially the World War I, World War II, and the Vietnam War. World War I created a national state with unprecedented powers and a sharply increased presence in AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s everyday lives. During the war, wages rose, working conditionsRead MorePainful Experiences of the Holocaust in the Novel, Night by Elie Wiesel1185 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesresult of his experiences during the Holocaust. How does WieselÃ¢â¬â¢s transformation reveal the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s intended theme about the Holocaust? World War II is a very impactful point in history where the Holocaust is viewed as one of the worst acts of human genocide. Countless Jewish victims endured traumatizing amounts of suffering and pain that transformed their lives as these experiences deprived them of their humanity and trust in others. The novel Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢NightÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ depicts the extraordinary and painfulRead MoreThe First Strange Place : Race And Sex778 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages The Second World War transformed the United States in several different ways. Over twelve million Americans will serve in the military, women will work in positions previously held by men in defense factories, along with blacks and whites working side-by-side in the military and war jobs, and the mass movements of the population throughout the country to find high paying defense job. Beth Bailey and David FarberÃ¢â¬â¢s book, The First Strange Place: Race and Sex in World War II Hawaii discusses
A Warrior of Freewill In ShakespearesÃ Macbeth, the constant question of whether Macbeth is a victim of fate or that he chooses his own path looms. Macbeth is not necessarily a play of fate, but rather a tragedy that occurs as a result of uncontrollable greed and ambition by Macbeth and his wife. Macbeth had been given prophecies that came to be true, but also had to make decisions to fulfill them. MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s choices, which are driven by his vaulting ambition, are ultimately responsible for the actions that lead to his fate. The weird sisters only make suggestions about Macbeths road to kingship; they do not cast spells to make all their predictions true. Macbeth is responsible for putting power into the hands of Lady Macbeth and letting her influence him. Finally, Macbeth acknowledges his guilt of wrongdoing and is thereby responsible for his actions. MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s ambitions drive him on to follow a plan to acquire the throne as well as secure it. Macbeth is in no way under a spell or curse; he chooses to create a path of evil for himself. The predictions of the witches are only temptations. The witches try to create chaos by prophesying to Macbeth in order to get him to act. They plant the seed of evil in Macbeths head that grows to dominate his mind. It is Macbeth who made the choices that determine his fate. He is not forced to kill Duncan nor any of his other victims. The weird sisters never tell Macbeth what to do with these suggestions. Macbeth chose to believe he was cursed by fate. In terms of the fate and magical aspect of the play, solid evidence is missing that says that the witches play a part in any kind of magic or fate altering aspects. Despite the coincidence of the prophecies coming true, the only spell that Macbeth is under is the illusion he creates from his own decision to follow the persuasive words of the witches. In the opening of the play, the sergeant comments on MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s fate, saying, Ã¢â¬Å"And Fortune, on his damned quarry smiling, Showd like a rebels whore. But alls too weak; For brave Macbeth -well he deserves that name- Disdaining Fortune, with his brandishd steel, Which smoked with bloody executionÃ¢â¬ (I. ii. 14-7). The sergeant says here that Macbeth should have died in battleÃ¢â¬âbut he was stronger than his fate. From the commencement of the play, Macbeth has been introduced as stronger than any fate that would attempt to take hold over him. This implies that all events that happen within the play are because of MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s actions, not his fate. It was Macbeths free will, with the influence of the witches prophesies that determined his destiny. Macbeth chose to kill Duncan, chose to kill his servants, Banquo, and Macduffs family, and chose to fight to his death. He was not forced to do so; he took each step on the path to his destruction by choice. Macbeth is initially curious and disbelieving about these deceptive Ã¢â¬Å"hagsÃ¢â¬ , but he takes their forecasts literally. The witches only make predictions about the future kingship of Macbeth: All hail, Macbeth! Hail to thee, that shall be king hereafter! (I. iii. 50) Macbeth, along with Lady Macbeth, is responsible for making the judgments that lead to the downfall and destruction of Macbeth. The ability for Macbeth to choose his own fate appears as soon as he decides to stop and listen to the witches. He believes what they say is important when he requests, Stay, you imperfect speakers, tell me more (I. i. 70). His ability to decide the value of the magical qualities of the prophecies is, in essence, the entire proof of his free will. The witches do not actually do anything to make Macbeth kill Duncan. They tempt him, but it is his own ambition that leads him to commit the crime. Although Macbeths temptation started with the words of witches; the true cause of his downfall was from his inner struggle, as well as greed and ambition. Macbeth chooses to follow the path of letting the witches persuade him. Even the witches prophecies are generally put to make Macbeth choose his own interpretation of what the witches say. For example, the third witchÃ¢â¬â¢s greeting, All hail, Macbeth, thou shalt be king hereafter! (I. i. 70) simply implies that he will be king, not how he will become king. The witch telling Macbeth, a well respected thane, that he is going to become king eventually, is nearly as accurate of a prediction as saying that he will die someday. Later in the same scene, Ross and Angus meet Macbeth. They tell Macbeth that he is now the Thane of Cawdor. Macbeth then reflects on the predictions and admits that, Present fears are less than horrible imaginings (I. vii. 139). Macbeth relates his fear that he may have to take violent action in order to become king, but hopes that it can come about by chanceÃ¢â¬ ¦ without [his] stir(i. iii. 141-3). Macbeth chooses to allow the witches words influence his life instead of letting things naturally occur. Banquo serves to show how the predictions ere not just destiny and did not control his life. Even when he sees that many are becoming true, he states, may [the witches] not be my oracles(III. i. 9). He acknowledges his choice that he will let events occur and not try to fulfill the prophecies. Macbeth has the option to take this approach. Had he done so, a claim could be made that it was destiny that Macbeth would murder Duncan; however, Macbeth lives on account of the prophecies. Almost immediately after the witches have visited him, Macbeth begins to take their prophecies as reality. He mulls over the thought of fulfilling the tempting predictions, now that his mind is lustful for power, instead of choosing to remain loyal to the king. Little does he know, MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s ambition to become king will cause him quite a stir. When Malcolm is awarded the title of Scotland, Macbeth makes his steely pivotal resolution to see it as an obstacle or Ã¢â¬Å"a step/On which [he] must fall down, or else oÃ¢â¬â¢er-leap,/For in [his]way it lies Ã¢â¬ (I. iv. 37-9). It was not Macbeth who was destined to become king, but DuncanÃ¢â¬â¢s son Malcolm. It was only through MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s decisions and actions that he became king. By murdering Duncan and forcing his heir to flee for safety, Macbeth becomes king. However, this was not his fate but simply MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s ambition taking action on the witchesÃ¢â¬â¢ words. Macbeth Ã¢â¬Å"seeks power as an end in itself and sees any means as justified provided it helps him achieve his goalÃ¢â¬ (Ropp-1). These interpretations lead Macbeth and Lady Macbeth to allow their vaulting ambitions to the death of King Duncan. For the sake of Macbeths ambition, he is willing to murder his cousin, Duncan. Macbeth realizes that murdering his king is treacherous, disloyal, perfidious and blasphemous, as every king is set on throne by God; he is driven by his undying aspiration to steal the throne and be king: I have no spur / To prick the sides of my intent, but only / Vaulting ambition, which oerleaps itself / And falls on th other. (I. vii. 25-8) Macbeth does not easily make this decision. In fact, at first he decides against it, but, with the knowledge that he could be king, he can not help himself from considering it. Lady Macbeth is also moved by her avarice to be alongside her husband on the hrone. She uses all her strength and intelligence for evil purposes; this confident, arrogant, severe, demanding and controlling woman instills the plan of the murder of Duncan to Macbeth: We fail? / But screw your courage to the sticking place / And well not fail. When Duncan is asleep. (I. vii. 60-2). After persistent persuasion from Lady Macbeth, she and Macbeth finally make their decision. Lady Macbeth will load Duncans attendants with liquor, and then, on Lady Macbeths signal, Macbeth will creep into Duncans chamber and slay him with his servants weapons. This act surges Macbeth forward on the direct path to his destruction. After killing Duncan, Macbeth acknowledges, To know my deed, twere best not know myself [II. ii. 73]. This line sets the tone for the remainder of the tragedy. He is his deed in his own eyes, and in his own eyes his deed is appalling. Afterwards, when Duncan is discovered dead, Macbeth kills again when he murders the servants who were guarding Duncan. Claiming he acted in rage, Macbeth kills the servants so that they cannot bear witness against him. Macbeths greed has taken control of him and he can not turn back. It only took the one idea embedded into Macbeths head to lead him toward corruption. Macbeth continues to follow this path of corruption by hiring three murderers to kill Banquo and Fleance. He views the witchÃ¢â¬â¢s prophecy of Banquo being the father of kings as a threat to his throne. Immediately before the murder of Banquo, Macbeth mutters these linesÃ Ã¢â¬Å"Come seeling night, Scarf up the tender eye of pitiful day; And with thy bloody and invisible hand Cancel and tear to pieces the great bond Which keeps me paleÃ¢â¬ (III, ii, 46-50). He willfully summons the night to protect him and knowingly breaks his bond with god. He does this to succeed in his ambition. In the second instance Macbeth meets the witches; he seeks them out of his own accord. His ambition to remain in power leads Macbeth to make the decision to find the witches. He makes the choice to assure all is well within his future. Macbeth goes to seek the witches in a dark cave and Ã¢â¬Å"conjuresÃ¢â¬ the witches Ã¢â¬Å"by which [they] professÃ¢â¬ to Ã¢â¬Å"answer [him]Ã¢â¬ ¦ even till destruction sicken; answer [him] to what [he] ask [the witches]Ã¢â¬ (IV. i. 50-61). Regardless of the consequences of the answers to his questions, he chooses to have his future told. They present him with three apparitions. The first apparition appears as an armed head that says, Macbeth! Macbeth! Macbeth! beware Macduff; / Beware the thane of Fife(IV. i. 69-71) The second apparition is a bloody child that tells Macbeth, Be bloody, bold, and resolute; laugh to scorn / The power of man, for none born of woman / Shall harm Macbeth. (IV. i. 78-81) Finally the third apparition, in the form of a child with a crown on his head, holding a tree, tells Macbeth that he Shall never vanquished be until Great Birnam wood to high Dunsinane Hill / Shall come against him. (VI. i. 92-3)Macbeth now feels assured that he cannot be killed because he assumes that all people are born of a woman, and it is impossible for a forest to move. Even at this point, Macbeth still has a choice of whether or not to believe the witches. The weird sisters have not put any spell on him; they have just filled his greedy mind with a sense of security and power for kingship. He could never have guesse d that the apparitions meant that Macduff did not have a natural birth and that the English would use trees as camouflage. This false confidence Macbeth is given is extremely important to allow him to make his final decisions that result in his defeat. The actions which have morphed Macbeth into the tyrannical king causes Macduff to rebel against him, causes Malcom to assert the justice of his title and gives reason for the English king, Edward, to take arms against Macbeth. The apparitions made an effect on Macbeth and he acts foolishly because of them. When he is told that Macduff has fled to England, Macbeth, in fury, orders his family murdered. This only strengthens Macduffs desire to confront and kill Macbeth. When Macbeth finally realizes that he has been deceived by the witches his overconfidence turns into arrogance. A messenger reports to Macbeth that it appears that Birnam Wood is moving toward Dunsinane, as the apparitions had warned Macbeth it would. But Macbeth now is too determined to fight than to retreat, so he orders his soldiers to attack. On the battlefield he feels trapped. At the same time however, he clings to the prophesy that he cannot by killed by anyone born of a woman. When Macbeth is finally confronted by Macduff, Macduff explains that e was delivered by caesarian section, Ã¢â¬Å"untimely rippÃ¢â¬â¢dÃ¢â¬ (V. viii. 16) and thus, technically, not born. Now Macbeth fully understands the deception of the witches and realizes that he destined to die here. But when he is given the chance to live he does not take it, he would rather die than live in shame. By free will, despite knowing that he will probably die, Macbeth, a Ã¢â¬Å"rarer monsterÃ¢â¬ ¦ the tyrantÃ¢â¬ ( V. viii. 25-7) fights Macduff, and is slain. Regardless of his belief, Macbeth is no victim of fate or any kind of magic or curse from the witches. He is the victim of his own interpretation of prophecies as well as the persuasive words of the witches. He forced the prophecies to come true out of his own disintegrating mental state and fear of death from his own friends. Macbeth made his own decisions and chose his own path which brought chaos and evil to everyone, including himself. Lady Macbeth is a woman of terror and is essentially given permission to kill both herself and her husband. From her introduction to the play, she is seen as a callous, indifferent, horrible person. She is the first person introduced in the play onstage alone, suggesting that she is etremely independent. In response to MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢ letter, she questions his character as weak regarding the actions that would need to be taken in order to achieve King of Scotland. She makes the terrifying decision to summon dark spirits to Ã¢â¬Å"unsexÃ¢â¬â¢ her, to Ã¢â¬Å"fill [her] with direst cruelty, make thick [her] blood, stop remorse, take my milk for gallÃ¢â¬ and for Ã¢â¬Å"thick night Ã¢â¬Å"to Ã¢â¬Å"pall [her] in the dunnest smoke of hellÃ¢â¬ (I. v. 40-51). She decides to abandon all that she thinks of as weakness: her womanly feelings, compassion, sensitivity, and milk of human kindness. She does all this within a few minutes of receiving MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s letter. It is apparent that she, along with her husband, is fueled by ambition and obsessed with the notion of power. Immediately after Macbeth arrives home, Lady Macbeth notifies Macbeth of her idea to achieve the throne. She persuades him to leave the preparation to her, asking that Macbeth would Ã¢â¬Å"put this nightÃ¢â¬â¢s great business into [her] dispatchÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"leave the rest to [her]Ã¢â¬ (I. vi. 7-74). MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s only reply to this overwhelming energy of Lady Macbeth is, Ã¢â¬Å"we will speak furtherÃ¢â¬ (I. vi. 71). Duncan proves to be an obstacle to the throne which rouses determination, but being impatiently pressured forward makes Macbeth recoil. Macbeth decides to allow his wife to take the reigns of DuncanÃ¢â¬â¢s murder plot to secure his reign o f the throne. It is in MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s choice to permit Lady MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s plan of murder that leads to the primary steps of their paranoia; resulting in the murders of potential threats due to the choice to allow ambition to surmount conscience and morals. In Macbeth, Shakespeare focuses his attention fully upon that of the criminal who is deeply aware of his own criminality, is repulsed by it, but is driven by ambition and external pressures ever further into crimeÃ¢â¬ ¦Macbeth fully admits the validity and worth of the moral laws he violates and judges himself from the same ethical perspectives as their victimsÃ¢â¬ ¦Macbeth is the most internal of Shakespeares tragedies and that the protagonist is his own most formidable adversary Macbeth is the most private and internal of Shakespeares tragedies, and the tragic suffering that occurs is the torture of the mind that goes on within the hero and heroineÃ¢â¬ ¦No other Shakespearean hero has so firm and correct sense of self-knowledge, nor so fully developed a concept of the universe and his place in it. Macbeth has a unique ability to foresee both the practical and the ethical outcome of his actionsÃ¢â¬ ¦The most terrible thing about his tragedy is that he goes to it with his eyes wide open, his vision unclouded, his moral judgment still in perfect working order. He willfully disregards his own best perceptions and intuitions, but he is never rid of themÃ¢â¬ ¦More than any other Shakespearean hero, he has a perfectly clear concept of who he is and where he standsÃ¢â¬âand it is exactly this perception that torments and spiritually destroys himÃ¢â¬ ¦Macbeth is fully aware of the enormity of his transgressions and he retains his humanity throughout the play because he retains an awareness of the magnitude of his crimesÃ¢â¬ ¦Macbeth is the most completely internal of all Shakespeares tragedies. It presents us with a man who has a clear conception of the universe and his own proper place in it. But, when confronted with the possibility of committing a daring though criminal act, he willfully deceives himself for a short time and embraces an opposite view of the world. In the aftermath of an permanent act, he finds himself irreversibly committed to a world-view in which he does not believe. (McElroy 204-207) Bernard Mc Elroy compares Macbeth to other Shakespearean heroes and concludes that Macbeth is the most self aware tragic hero of all Shakespearean plays. He believes that this self awareness is one of the characteristics of the tragedy: that he is aware of the wrong doing he commits. Macbeth grows more sinful and overpowered with ambition and greed and does not make any real attempt to change. His conscious is bothered by this. Slowly Macbeth loses grasp of his sanity and self-control. Being consumed with ambition and power, Macbeth lets nothing stand in the way of his reign, because his reign is all that he has left now. In conventionally ambitious men, anticipation of the fruits of crime blunts the sensibilities to the crime itself. But Macbeth is just the opposite of this; he scarcely gives a thought to the spoils that will proceed from the act and keeps his attention unwaveringly upon the act itself; and his attitude toward the object of his fixation is mixed attraction and repulsion. His repulsion springs from the deeply moral side of his nature. No other character is so acutely aware of himself as living in the eye of heaven. When he looks into himself and finds there inclinations that are anything but celestial, he is frightened and revolted, and he extends his abhorrence of his own instinct to heaven nature: Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Stars, hide your fires; Let not light see my black and deep desires. The eye wink at the hand. (i. iv. 50-2) Yet on the heels of this can come a reassertion of the impulse to terrible and forbidden action: yet let that be / Which the eye fears, when it is done, to see (i. iv. 52-3). It is the very fearfulness of the deed that seems to exert the strongest attraction for him, since it calls for a degree of resolution and daring quite beyond the slaying of rebels. For Macbeth, action is self-definition; he is revolted by the act, but tantalized by the possibility of doing exactly that which is most expressly forbidden by all laws, sacred and humane. He dares to kill his king not so much to become king himself as to become the man who dared to do it. (220) McElroy views MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s ambition to slay the king as an act of forbidden rebellion, though not to acquire the throne. Regardless of the motives, however, Macbeth is determined to murder Duncan, which will result in becoming King of Scotland. Macbeths desperation to maintain stable power with malevolence and deceptiveness is shown further when he becomes so obsessed with the witches prophesies about his friend, Banquo, that he decides to hire three men to kill him and his son. Also because Macduff does not attend the banquet and flees to England, Macbeth, in anger, decides to have his family murdered. Guilt is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"the fact of having committed an offence; a feeling that you are to blame. Ã¢â¬ Because of MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s decisions fuelled by his ambition, his guilt begins to physically affect him. The fact that he is guilty points to the fact that he is aware of the wrongs that he has done. Had the events that have happened in MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s life been the fault of fate, he would have no reason to feel guilty, because then he would have had no hand in the decisions of his actions. The only explanation of MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s guilty emotions is that he himself is aware that he has been guilty throughout all his conscience acts to acquire the throne. It is not long before Macbeths own ruthlessness begins to greatly disturb him. He suffers from troubled sleep/insomnia, nightmares, loss of appetite, insanity, and full blown hallucinations. He states that he hears a voice after slaying Duncan, Ã¢â¬Å"it cried, Ã¢â¬Å"Sleep no more! Ã¢â¬ to all the house. Ã¢â¬Å"Glamis hath murdered sleep, and therefore Cawdor Shall sleep no more. Macbeth shall sleep no moreÃ¢â¬ (II. ii,42-4). Macbeth is disturbed of the murder he has committed. His guilt causes him to hear a voice and notifies him that he will not sleep again, for Macbeth has murdered sleep. Another incident of guilt ridden insanity is just before he is scheduled to kill Duncan, he sees a floating dagger, exclaiming, Ã¢â¬Å"is this a dagger, which I see before meÃ¢â¬ ¦fatal visionÃ¢â¬ ¦a dagger of the mind, a false creationÃ¢â¬ ¦from the heat oppressed brain? Ã¢â¬ (II. i. 32-9) The guilt of plotting and carrying out the murder of his cousin, his guest, and his king are too overwhelming for his mind to handle. Another example of this side effect of guilt is when Macbeth envisions Banquos ghost at the banquet in his castle and reacts terrified in front of his guests. Later in the play Macbeth confides, I am in blood / Steppd in so far, that, should I wade no more, / Returning were as tedious as go oer(III. v. 136-8) to Lady Macbeth. This remark paints the image f Macbeth swimming in a sea of blood, having proceeded so far that it is easier to continue than to go back. Macbeth has lost hope. With regret, he feels that he is past the point of no return, he has sinned so brutally and severely that he is unable to atone for it. Macbeths humanity is entrusted in that world-view of ambition-regardless of the horrors to achieve it-he exposed in his first major soliloquy, and, though his most forceful efforts throughout the play have been to expel that vision of himself, he never comes close to doing so. It remains as a vantage point from which he must assess all that he has done, all that he has lost, all that he has become: I am sick at heart, / When I beholdÃ¢â¬â [V. iii. 19-20]. The thought is left incomplete, yet clearly what Macbeth beholds through this scene is himself: I have lived long enough. My way of life Is falln into the sear, the yellow leaf, And that which should accompany old age, As honor, love, obedience, troops of friends, I must not look to have. [V. iii. 22-6] Honour, love, obedience, and troops of friends are the benefits of the restricted, natural, ordered world he has abandoned; in the greedy world he chose to embrace, they should have no value whatsoever. But these values are terribly essential to Macbeth, and only his loss of them has made him realize how important they are. Alfred Harbage has observed that no voice in literature has sounded with greater sadness(Harbage 97) than Macbeths in the above speech. To have a fervently understood, evidently valid vision of the world, and yet to be cut off from it by ones own actions, to be despised and cursed by all humanity, to have to resist ones own most intensely felt emotions, and to be aware of all this with perfect, unblinking clarity, is certainly the most tormenting visualization of human loneliness that has ever been realized in drama. The degree of his self-awareness is apparent: he chose and comprehends his situation unflinchingly and refuses either to change it. He drains the ingredients of his poisoned chalice to the last bitter dregs. MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s ambitions drive him on to follow a plan to acquire the throne as well as secure it. MacbethÃ¢â¬â¢s choices which are driven by his vaulting ambition is ultimately responsible for the actions that lead to his fate. Macbeth chose to make himself believe that what is Ã¢â¬Å"fair is foul, and foul is fairÃ¢â¬ (I. i. 1) for a moment and put himself in a position only more violence could rectify. Wiatt Ropp wrote that Ã¢â¬Å"Once we accept the cultural limitations imposed on our thought and behavior, once we believe that the limits of the permissible are the extent of the possible, then we happily police ourselvesÃ¢â¬ (Ropp-2). Macbeth chose to reject his cultural limitations of not becoming king and instead overstepped his limits, which lead to his death. The weird sisters only make suggestions about Macbeths road to kingship; they do not cast spells to make true all their predictions. Macbeth is responsible for putting power into the hands of Lady Macbeth and letting her influence him.
Introduction In this topic, we will try to find out about insolvent trading and how it is happened and while Company becomes insolvent what are the duties for directors in order to save unsecured creditors. We will also find out how directors become liable for their action in regard to insolvent trading and if they breach any law for insolvent trading what are the consequences they have to suffer and also law has given some defences for insolvent trading for directors in order to avoid penalty. S9 defines a director of a company- a person who is appointed to the position of a director or alternate director regardless of the name given to their position. Managing director is responsible for overall daily business. Non executive directors have part time involvement with the company. They participate board meeting or meeting of board committees. They monitor the activities of the management team bringing an independent view often an outside or broad perspective to the boardÃ¢â¬â¢s deliberations. We will write a custom essay sample on Law Practice or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page They consider the interest of the company and general body of shareholders. Insolvent trading: In order to answer the question of insolvent trading, we will find out when company becomes insolvent. Under s95A definition of insolvency is regarded when a Company unable to pay its debt when it becomes due. Usually Insolvency is not determined by looking at the balance sheet of a company and the surplus of assets over liabilities. It emphasises on cash-flow which is called Ã¢â¬Å"cash flow testÃ¢â¬ . Companies may experience both types of insolvency simultaneously. If we see the Powell V Fryer SASC 59, the Judge ruled that from Companies financial position, insolvency must be derived that it should not look only cash resource but also to money. In this case we found while company paid dividends and went into liquidation and became insolvent. If a company has few assets to pay its creditors while the company became insolvent and this insolvent trading section helps to protect creditors by lifting the corporation veil and put a duty on directors to prevent insolvent trading while there is a reasonable ground they canÃ¢â¬â¢t pay its debt. The directors became personally liable for its debt while company became insolvent. Before finding out whether directors breach any law for insolvent trading or not under s 588G, we look at the case of Daniels V Anderson (1995) 13 ACLC 614. The court held that for company business and finances they should familiarise themselves and made inquires and monitoring management. In regards to management directors must be pro active and could be achieved through: they have to get information about companyÃ¢â¬â¢s matter. Attendance of meeting, they should not rely on others and make their own inquires. In decision making process they have to participate. In this case we see, Susan is merely rely on William and doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t attend regular meeting. Sarah also relied on William as she is his wife and never questioned of activities done by William. Only Jack is the active person who attended meeting and worked properly till July 2008. Due to illness, Jack decided to resign and he couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t attend meeting